Uso do metilfenidato em crianças e adolescentes com TDAH: uma revisão sobre riscos e benefícios

Autores

  • Maria Mathias Maurilio
  • Rick Wilhiam de Camargo UNISUL
  • Rafael Mariano de Bitencourt

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2023.v31.14409

Palavras-chave:

Metilfenidato, TDAH, Criança, Adolescente, Riscos, Benefícios

Resumo

Introdução. O transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) é considerado um transtorno do neurodesenvolvimento, caracterizado por certos comportamentos ou sintomas relacionados a atenção, a impulsividade e a hiperatividade. Os tratamentos do TDAH abrangem um procedimento múltiplo, incluindo intervenções não farmacológicas com abordagens psicoeducacionais e intervenções farmacológicas como o uso do metilfenidato, comumente o mais utilizado no Brasil. Objetivo. Revisar os riscos e benefícios do uso do metilfenidato como tratamento de curto e longo prazo em crianças e adolescentes com TDAH. Método. Elencaram-se por meio de busca bibliográfica 246 estudos, dos quais, após análise dos títulos e resumos 53 estudos foram selecionados. Resultados. O estudo abrangeu as características clínicas dos pacientes com TDAH e seus efeitos sobre o uso do metilfenidato. A literatura mostra que o metilfenidato pode ser benéfico em relação a hiperatividade e a falta de concentração a espaço escolar e social, bem como em outros fatores, porém, estudos mostram que existem muitos efeitos adversos associados a ele, como perda de apetite, insônia, cefaleia e sintomas gastrointestinais, incluído psicose e problemas cardiovasculares, que podem surgir a longo prazo através de um uso contínuo, prolongado e recorrente, riscos estes que não podem ser ignorados tendo em vista o grande uso deste medicamento por crianças e adolescentes no Brasil. Conclusão. Conclui-se através desta revisão, que se faz necessário mais pesquisas sobre os efeitos adversos do metilfenidato em crianças e adolescentes com TDAH, a fim de evidenciar de modo mais claro as alterações que este medicamento causa no indivíduo.

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Publicado

2023-04-04

Como Citar

Maurilio, M. M., Camargo, R. W. de ., & Bitencourt, R. M. de. (2023). Uso do metilfenidato em crianças e adolescentes com TDAH: uma revisão sobre riscos e benefícios. Revista Neurociências, 31, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2023.v31.14409

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##plugins.generic.dates.received## 2022-09-30
##plugins.generic.dates.accepted## 2023-03-09
##plugins.generic.dates.published## 2023-04-04

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