Astrócitos nas epilepsias: novas perspectivas para diagnóstico e tratamento da zona epileptogênica

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2021.v29.12515

Palavras-chave:

glias, astrócitos, dieta cetogênica, vesículas extracelulares, epilepsia

Resumo

Introdução. No mundo, estima-se que mais de 70 milhões de pessoas apresentem algum tipo de epilepsia, sendo a maioria destes casos residentes de países não desenvolvidos, e até um terço possuem mal controle das crises com as medicações existentes no mercado. Objetivo. Nesta breve revisão, exploraremos em maiores detalhes dois tópicos onde a importância das células da glia são marginalmente explorados: na detecção de patologias relacionadas à epilepsia através das vesículas extracelulares (VE) e no tratamento através da dieta cetogênica. Método. Foram selecionados, após buscas nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Scielo, artigos que investigaram o papel das células da glia na geração de vesículas extracelulares e na dieta cetogênica. Resultados. As vesículas extracelulares já se mostram cruciais para a identificação especialmente de gliomas, porém estudos demonstram que vesículas provenientes de astrócitos são encontradas no sangue de pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal, provando assim sua utilidade para várias patologias observadas nas epilepsias. Já no tratamento, os astrócitos são foco secundário apenas de medicamentos bloqueadores de transportadores de GABA, e nas dietas cetogênicas. Dentre os vários mecanismos propostos para os efeitos desta dieta, como alterações na distribuição celular de ATP, aumento da produção de GABA, e no sistema purinérgico via liberação de ATP pelas astrócitos e sua conversão em adenosina. Conclusões. Muitas evidências demonstram o impacto das células da glia no diagnóstico e tratamento das epilepsias.

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Publicado

2021-08-05

Como Citar

Pachane, B. C., Corrado, M., & Peixoto-Santos, J. E. (2021). Astrócitos nas epilepsias: novas perspectivas para diagnóstico e tratamento da zona epileptogênica. Revista Neurociências, 29. https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2021.v29.12515

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Artigos de Revisão
Recebido em 2021-08-05
Publicado em 2021-08-05