Considerações sobre terapia de retreinamento de zumbido e estimulação magnética transcraniana

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2021.v29.11911

Palavras-chave:

Terapia de retreinamento do zumbido, Estimulação magnética transcraniana, Córtex auditivo, Neurociência

Resumo

Introdução. O zumbido é uma percepção subjetiva do som na ausência de estímulo acústico externo. Tem impactos comportamentais negativos associados, por exemplo, depressão, insônia, dificuldade de concentração, ansiedade, irritabilidade e pânico. As sensações interferem negativamente na vida social e econômica dos indivíduos. Dados empíricos sugerem que distúrbios no córtex auditivo e suas vias neurais dão origem a ativações espontâneas anormais associadas ao zumbido. Compreender as causas é uma tarefa desafiadora. No entanto, a hipótese atual sugere que clusters de redes neurais e sub-redes estão envolvidos na geração do zumbido. A neuroplasticidade dinâmica central induzida por uma perda periférica da entrada auditiva pode causar zumbido. Até o momento, não há um consenso amplo sobre a terapia mais eficaz para o tratamento do zumbido. Objetivo. Refletir sobre duas terapias de zumbido: Terapia de Retreinamento de Zumbido (TRT) e Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana (TMS). Método. Uma revisão narrativa. Não foram adotados critérios explícitos e sistemáticos na busca do referencial teórico. Resultados. A TMS é promissora em comparação com a TRT porque a TMS atua nos mecanismos neurais do zumbido. TRT é eficaz em um nível comportamental, uma vez que alivia os sentimentos negativos do zumbido leve e moderado. Conclusão. O TRT não avança na fonte neural, mas apenas na percepção do zumbido. O TMS atua diretamente nas causas neurais. Ambas as terapias têm limitações e podem funcionar para alguns pacientes. No entanto, o efeito do TMS parece mais eficiente, embora transitório.

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Publicado

2021-09-08

Como Citar

Santos Fernandes, F., & Batista de Sousa, C. E. (2021). Considerações sobre terapia de retreinamento de zumbido e estimulação magnética transcraniana. Revista Neurociências, 29, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2021.v29.11911

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Artigos de Revisão
Recebido em 2021-03-20
Aceito em 2021-07-27
Publicado em 2021-09-08

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