Mudanças reorganizacionais nos córtices somatossensorial e motor em amputados

revisão da literatura

Autores

  • Liliane Fonseca de Almeida Acadêmico do curso de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri
  • Gleyce Valle Camargos Acadêmico do curso de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri
  • Clynton Lourenço Corrêa Professor Adjunto do curso de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR Litoral).

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2009.v17.8575

Palavras-chave:

Plasticidade Neuronal, Amputação, Membro-fantasma, Dor, Reabilitação

Resumo

Embora antigamente não se considerava que o córtex sensóriomotor de mamíferos adultos pudesse passar por mudanças em sua organização, sabe-se hoje que essas são possíveis e ocorrem devido a uma série de fatores. Visando compreender melhor a plasticidade cerebral, os objetivos dessa revisão foram identificar as mudanças reorganizacionais que ocorrem nos córtices somatossensorial e motor em amputados, bem como os mecanismos relacionados a essas mudanças e as repercussões funcionais advindas dessas alterações. A análise de estudos realizados em amputados permitiu concluir que a área de representação referente ao membro amputado nos córtices sensitivo e motor não fica inativa, mas passa a se relacionar com áreas corticais vizinhas. Além disso, a reorganização cortical em amputados está freqüentemente relacionada a uma condição conhecida por sensação fantasma e pode algumas vezes estar associada à dor fantasma. Os mecanismos envolvidos com a plasticidade incluem a remoção da inibição cortical local, o reforço de sinapses existentes e a formação de novas sinapses. Entender o processo reorganizacional do córtex cerebral é de fundamental importância na elaboração de estratégias de reabilitação para indivíduos amputados, pois através das intervenções terapêuticas pode-se, possivelmente, promover uma boa recuperação funcional e uma melhora da qualidade de vida.

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Publicado

2009-06-30

Como Citar

Almeida, L. F. de, Camargos, G. V., & Corrêa, C. L. (2009). Mudanças reorganizacionais nos córtices somatossensorial e motor em amputados: revisão da literatura. Revista Neurociências, 17(2), 146–155. https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2009.v17.8575

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Seção

Revisão de Literatura

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