Estímulo vibracional na espasticidade

uma perspectiva de tratamento

Autores

  • Eddy Krueger Beck Bacharel em Fisioterapia pela Faculdade de Pato Branco - FADEP, Mestrando em Engenharia Biomédica pela Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - UTFPR, Bolsista CAPES. Curitiba-PR, Brasil.
  • Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto Engenheiro de Computação pela PUCPR, Doutorando em Engenharia Biomédica pela UNICAMP, Bolsista CNPQ, Campinas-SP, Brasil.
  • Percy Nohama Doutor em Engenharia Biomédica pela UNICAMP, Docente da PUCPR e da UTFPR, Curitiba-PR, Brasil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4181/RNC.2010.ip02.7p

Palavras-chave:

Mecanorreceptores, Espasticidade Muscular, Vibração, Reabilitação, Vias Neurais

Resumo

A espasticidade é um distúrbio neurológico proveniente da lesão de um neurônio motor superior e da desorganização dos circuitos neurais da medula espinhal, que acarreta alterações sensório-motoras de graduações variadas. Técnicas farmacológicas, fisioterápicas e cirúrgicas são utilizadas para reduzir a espasticidade. Os objetivos deste artigo são apresentar e discutir a viabilidade de utilizar estímulos vibracionais no tratamento fisioterápico. Ondas oscilatórias geradas por estímulos vibracionais aplicados ao paciente são captadas por receptores periféricos causando ilusão de movimento. A plasticidade neural é evocada por estímulos físicos, como o movimento da perna, ou artificialmente, com estimulação elétrica funcional. Aplicando-se estímulo vibracional sobre orgão tendinoso de Golgi e utilizando-se de análise por imagem, pesquisadores obtiveram ativação de diversas regiões cerebrais, corroborando a hipótese de que o estímulo vibracional é eficaz nos distúrbios de movimento de origem neurológica. Os parâmetros ajustados para proporcionar ilusão de movimento encontrados na literatura são: frequência entre 1 e 140 Hz; força entre 0,5 e 9 N; e amplitude de 0,005 a 2 mm. Da pesquisa realizada, conclui-se que a vibração sobre receptores sensoriais acarreta em ativação cortical e esporadicamente na ativação motora agonista ou antagonista. Do ponto de vista clínico, o estímulo vibracional mostra-se eficaz no tratamento da espasticidade.

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Publicado

2010-12-31

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Beck, E. K., Nogueira Neto, G. N., & Nohama, P. (2010). Estímulo vibracional na espasticidade: uma perspectiva de tratamento. Revista Neurociências, 18(4), 523–530. https://doi.org/10.4181/RNC.2010.ip02.7p

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