Efeitos da estimulação elétrica funcional no controle neuromuscular artificial

Autores

  • Eddy Krueger Beck Fisioterapeuta, Doutorando em Engenharia Biomédica pela UTFPR, Bolsista CAPES. Curitiba-PR, Brasil.
  • Eduardo Mendonça Scheeren Educador Físico, MSc. em Ciências do Movimento Humano pela UFRGS – RS, Doutorando em Engenharia Biomédica pela UTFPR, Curitiba-PR, Brasil. Bolsista CAPES.
  • Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto Engenheiro de Computação, Doutorando em Engenharia Biomédica pela UNICAMP, Bolsista CNPQ. Campinas-SP, Brasil.
  • Vera Lúcia da Silveira Nantes Button Doutora em Engenharia Biomédica pela UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, Docente da UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, Brasil.
  • Percy Nohama Doutor em Engenharia Biomédica pela UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, Docente da PUCPR e da UTFPR, Curitiba-PR, Brasil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4181/RNC.2010.06ip.11

Palavras-chave:

Estimulação Elétrica, Medula Espinhal, Plasticidade Neuronal, Reabilitação

Resumo

Regiões distintas do sistema nervoso central ativam o sistema neuromuscular. Atualmente, utilizam-se sistemas artificiais para mimetizarem as ações fisiológicas perdidas devido a uma lesão neurológica. A estimulação elétrica de tecidos humanos in vivo, como forma de tratamento, desenvolveu-se por meio de pesquisas e do aprimoramento da tecnologia. Pessoas que sofreram lesão medular podem perder parcial ou totalmente a função motora de uma determinada região corporal. A aplicação de estimulação elétrica no tecido neuromuscular gera movimentação artificial que pode desenvolver uma melhora de longo prazo através da plasticidade neuronal. A estimulação elétrica funcional pode utilizar variados parâmetros, eletrodos e locais de aplicação. Quando o ajuste e correção dos parâmetros estimulatórios ocorre manualmente, tem-se um sistema em malha aberta, quando ocorre automaticamente, o sistema denomina-se controle em malha fechada. Ambas as formas contribuem para a reabilitação física de pacientes acometidos por lesão neuronal. Os sistemas em malha fechada apresentam vantagens em relação aos de malha aberta, como a correção automática dos parâmetros de estimulação. Assim, com o desenvolvimento de estratégias de controle e a criação de interfaces amigáveis, a ativação do conjunto de equipamentos e softwares que viabilizarão o movimento artificial poderá ser efetuada pelo próprio usuário, assemelhando-se ao sistema fisiológico humano.

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2011-09-30

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Krueger Beck, E., Scheeren, E. M., Nogueira Neto, G. N., Button, V. L. da S. N., & Nohama, P. (2011). Efeitos da estimulação elétrica funcional no controle neuromuscular artificial. Revista Neurociências, 19(3), 530–541. https://doi.org/10.4181/RNC.2010.06ip.11

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