Diretrizes Baseadas em Evidências Diagnóstico e manejo da Síndrome de Guillain–Barré em dez etapas

Autores

  • Sonja E. Leonhard
  • Melissa R. Mandarakas
  • Francisco A.A. Gondim
  • Kathleen Bateman
  • Maria L.B. Ferreira
  • David R. Cornblath
  • Pieter A. van Doorn
  • Mario E. Dourado
  • Richard A.C. Hughes
  • Badrul Islam
  • Susumu Kusunoki
  • Carlos A. Pardo
  • Ricardo Reisin
  • James J. Sejvar
  • Nortina Shahrizaila
  • Cristiane Soares
  • Thirugnanam Umapathi
  • Yuzhong Wang
  • Eppie M. Yiu
  • Hugh J. Willison
  • Bart C. Jacobs

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2021.v29.11725

Palavras-chave:

Doenças autoimunes, Diagnóstico, Neuropatias periféricas, Doenças inflamatórias

Resumo

A síndrome de Guillain–Barré (SGB) é uma doença imunomediada rara, mas potencialmente fatal, dos nervos periféricos e das raízes nervosas, que é geralmente desencadeada por infecções. A incidência da SGB pode, portanto, aumentar durante surtos de doenças infecciosas, como foi observado durante a epidemia do vírus Zika em 2013 na Polinésia Francesa e em 2015 na América Latina. O diagnóstico e manejo da SGB podem ser complicados visto que sua apresentação clínica e o curso da doença são heterogêneos e não existem atualmente diretrizes clínicas internacionais disponíveis. Para auxiliar os médicos, especialmente em um cenário de surto, desenvolvemos uma diretriz globalmente aplicável para o diagnóstico e manejo da SGB. A diretriz se baseia no consenso de especialistas e na literatura atual e tem uma estrutura de dez etapas para facilitar seu uso na prática clínica. Primeiro fornecemos uma introdução aos critérios diagnósticos, às variantes clínicas e aos diagnósticos diferenciais da SGB. A seguir, as dez etapas abrangem o reconhecimento e o diagnóstico precoces da SGB, a internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, a indicação e seleção do tratamento, o monitoramento e tratamento da progressão da doença, o prognóstico do curso e resultado clínico e o manejo das complicações e sequelas.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Sejvar JJ, Baughman AL, Wise M, Morgan OW. Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroepidemiology 2011;36:123-33.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000324710

Asbury AK, Arnason BGW, Karp HR, McFarlin DE. Criteria for diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol 1978;3:565-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410030628

Asbury AK, Cornblath DR. Assessment of current diagnostic criteria for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol 1990;27(Suppl):S21-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410270707

Sejvar JJ, Kohl KS, Gidudu J, Amato A, Bakshi N, Baxter R, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome and Fisher syndrome: case definitions and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine 2011;29:599-612.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.003

Hadden RD, Cornblath DR, Hughes RAC, Zielasek J, Hartung HP, Toyka KV, et al. Electrophysiological classification of Guillain-Barré syndrome: clinical associations and outcome. Ann Neurol 1998;44:780-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410440512

Willison HJ, Jacobs BC, van Doorn PA. Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet 2016;388:717-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00339-1

Van den Berg B, Bunschoten C, van Doorn PA, Jacobs BC. Mortality in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 2013;80:1650-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182904fcc

Dominguez-Moreno R, Tolosa-Tort P, Patiño-Tamez A, Quintero-Bauman A, Collado-Frías DK, Miranda-Rodríguez MG, et al. Mortalidad asociada al diagnostico de sindrome de Guillain-Barré en adultos ingresados en instituciones del sistema sanitario Mexicano. Rev Neurol 2014;58:4-10. https://doi.org/10.33588/rn.5801.2013370

Dourado ME, Felix RH, da Silva WK, Queiroz JW, Jeronimo SM. Clinical characteristics of Guillain-Barre syndrome in a tropical country: a Brazilian experience. Acta Neurol Scand 2012;125:47-53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2011.01503.x

Fokke C, van den Berg B, Drenthen J, Walgaard C, van Doorn PA, Jacobs BC. Diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome and validation of Brighton criteria. Brain 2014;137:33-43.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt285

Doets AY, Verboon C, van den Berg B, Harbo T, Cornblath DR, Willison HJ, et al. Regional variation of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain 2018;141:2866-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy232

Ruts L, Drenthen J, Jacobs BC, van Doorn PA. Dutch Guillain-Barré syndrome Study Group. Distinguishing acute-onset CIDP from fluctuating Guillain-Barré syndrome: a prospective study. Neurology 2010;74:1680-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181e07d14

Kleyweg RP, van der Meche FG. Treatment related fluctuations in Guillain-Barré syndrome after high-dose immunoglobulins or plasma-exchange. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;54:957-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.54.11.957

Kuitwaard K, Bos-Eyssen ME, Blomkwist-Markens PH, van Doorn PA. Recurrences, vaccinations and long-term symptoms in GBS and CIDP. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2009;14:310-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8027.2009.00243.x

Principi N, Esposito S. Vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Vaccine 2019;37:5544-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.05.119

Yuki N. Infectious origins of, and molecular mimicry in, Guillain-Barre and Fisher syndromes. Lancet Infect Dis 2001;1:29-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(01)00019-6

Yoshikawa K, Kuwahara M, Morikawa M, Fukumoto Y, Yamana M, Yamagishi Y, et al. Varied antibody reactivities and clinical relevance in anti-GQ1b antibody-related diseases. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2018;5:e501.

https://doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000501

Jacobs BC, Rothbarth PH, van der Meché FGA, Herbrink P, Schmitz PIM, de Klerk MA, et al. The spectrum of antecedent infections in Guillain-Barre syndrome: a case-control study. Neurology 1998;51:1110-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.51.4.1110

World Health Organization. Zika situation report 5 February 2016. World Health Organization, 2016. Disponível em: https://www.who.int/emergencies/zika-virus/situation-report/5-february-2016/en/

Cao-Lormeau VM, Blake A, Mons S, Lastère S, Roche C, Vanhomwegen J, et al. Guillain-Barre Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. Lancet 2016;387:1531-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00562-6

Parra B, Lizarazo J, Jiménez-Arango JA, Zea-Vera AF, González-Manrique G, Vargas J, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia. N Engl J Med 2016;375:1513-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1605564

Wilder-Smith A, Preet R, Renhorn KE, Ximenes RA, Rodrigues LC, Solomon T, et al. ZikaPLAN: Zika Preparedness Latin American Network. Glob Health Action 2017;10:1398485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2017.1398485

Jacobs BC, van den Berg B, Verboon C, Chavada G, Cornblath DR, Gorson KC, et al. International Guillain-Barre Syndrome Outcome Study: protocol of a prospective observational cohort study on clinical and biological predictors of disease course and outcome in Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2017;22:68-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jns.12209

Ropper AH, Wijdickr EFM, Truax BT. Guillain-Barré Syndrome. FA Davis Company, 1991, Ch.12, p.155-60.

Van den Berg B, Walgaard C, Drenthen J, Fokke C, Jacobs CB, van Doorn PA. Guillain-Barré syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Nat Rev Neurol 2014;10:469-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2014.121

Ruts L, Drenthen J, Jongen JLM, Hop WCJ, Visser GH, Jacobs BC, et al. Pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a long-term follow-up study. Neurology 2010;75:1439-47.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f88345

Korinthenberg R, Schessl J, Kirschner J. Clinical presentation and course of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome: a prospective multicentre study. Neuropediatrics 2007;38:10-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-981686

Roodbol J, de Wit MCY, Walgaard C, de Hoog M, Catsman-Berrevoets CE, et al. Recognizing Guillain-Barré syndrome in preschool children. Neurology 2011;76:807-10.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31820e7b62

Yuki N, Kokubun N, Kuwabara S, Sekiguchi Y, Ito M, Odaka M, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with normal or exaggerated tendon reflexes. J Neurol 2012;259:1181-90.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-011-6330-4

Ito M, Kuwabara S, Odaka M, Misawa S, Koga M, Hirata K, et al. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis and Fisher syndrome form a continuous spectrum: clinical analysis of 581 cases. J Neurol 2008;255:674-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-008-0775-0

Wakerley BR, Uncini A, Yuki N, the GBS Classification Group. Guillain–Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes—new diagnostic classification. Nat Rev Neurol 2014;10:537.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2014.138

Sekiguchi Y, Mori M, Misawa S, Sawai S, Yuki N, Beppu M, et al. How often and when Fisher syndrome is overlapped by Guillain-Barré syndrome or Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis? Eur J Neurol 2016;23:1058-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.12983

Uncini A, Yuki N. Sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome and related disorders: an attempt at systematization. Muscle Nerve 2012;45:464-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.22298

Odaka M, Yuki N, Yamada M, Koga M, Takemi T, Hirata K, et al. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis: clinical features of 62 cases and a subgroup associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain 2003;126:2279-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awg233

Ito M, Matsuno K, Sakumoto Y, Hirata K, Yuki N. Ataxic Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute sensory ataxic neuropathy form a continuous spectrum. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2011;82:294-9.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2010.222836

Graus F, Titulaer MJ, Balu R, Benseler S, Bien CG, Cellucci T, et al. A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Lancet Neurol 2016;15:391-404.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00401-9

Van den Berg B, van der Eijk AA, Pas SD, Hunter JG, Madden RG, Tio-Gillen AP, Dalton HR, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with preceding hepatitis E virus infection. Neurology 2014;82:491-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000111

Vellozzi C, Iqbal S, Broder K. Guillain-Barré syndrome, influenza, and influenza vaccination: the epidemiologic evidence. Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:1149-55. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu005

Thornton CA, Latif AS, Emmanuel JC. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zimbabwe. Neurology 1991;41:812-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.41.6.812

Islam B, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome following varicella-zoster virus infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018;37:511-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-018-3199-5

Carod-Artal FJ, Wichmann O, Farrar J, Gascon J. Neurological complications of dengue virus infection. Lancet Neurol 2013;12:906-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70150-9

Wielanek AC, Monredon JD, Amrani ME, Roger JC, Serveaux JP. Guillain-Barré syndrome complicating a Chikungunya virus infection. Neurology 2007;69:2105-7.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000277267.07220.88

Cornblath DR, McArthur JC, Kennedy PG, Witte AS, Griffin JW. Inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection. Ann Neurol 1987;21:32-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410210107

Schonberger LB, Bregman DJ, Sullivan-Bolyai JZ, Keenlyside RA, Ziegler DW, Retailliau HF, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome following vaccination in the National Influenza Immunization Program, United States, 1976-1977. Am J Epidemiol 1979;110:105-23.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112795

Burwen DR, Ball R, Bryan WW, Gibbs NA, Kliman R, Braun MM, et al. Evaluation of Guillain-Barré syndrome among recipients of influenza vaccine in 2000 and 2001. Am J Prev Med 2010;39:296-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.05.022

Kaplan JE, Katona P, Hurwitz ES, Schonberger LB. Guillain-Barré syndrome in the United States, 1979-1980 and 1980-1981: lack of an association with influenza vaccination. JAMA 1982;248:698-700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1982.03330060038030

Lasky T, Terracciano GJ, Magder L, Koski CL, Ballesteros M, Nash D, et al. The Guillain-Barré syndrome and the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 influenza vaccines. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1797-802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199812173392501

Juurlink DN, Stukel TA, Kwong J, Kopp A, McGeer A, RE Upshur, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome after influenza vaccination in adults: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:2217-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.20.2217

Kao JC, Brickshawana A, Liewluck T. Neuromuscular Complications of Programmed Cell Death-1 (PD-1) Inhibitors. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018;18:63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-018-0878-7

Hiew FL, Rajabally YA. Malignancy in Guillain-Barré syndrome: A twelve-year single-center study. J Neurol Sci 2017;375:275-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.02.024

Rudant J, Dupont A, Mikaeloff Y, Bolgert F, Coste J, Weill A. Surgery and risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. French Nat Epidemiol Study 2018,91:e1220-7.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.0000000000006246

Ho TW, Mishu B, Li CY, Gao CY, Cornblath DR, Griffin JW, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome in northern China. Relationship to Campylobacter jejuni infection and anti-glycolipid antibodies. Brain 1995;118(Pt 3):597-605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/118.3.597

Kuijf ML, van Doorn PA, Tio-Gillen AP, Geleijns K, Ang CW, Hooijkaas H, et al. Diagnostic value of anti-GM1 ganglioside serology and validation of the INCAT-ELISA. J Neurol Sci 2005;239:37-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2005.07.009

Uchibori A, Gyohda A, Chiba A. Ca(2+)-dependent anti-GQ1b antibody in GQ1b-seronegative Fisher syndrome and related disorders. J Neuroimmunol 2016;298:172-7.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.07.021

Guillain G. [Radiculoneuritis syndrome with hyperalbuminosis of cerebrospinal fluid without cellular reaction. Notes on clinical features and graphs of tendon reflexes]. Bell Mem Soc Med Paris 1916;40:1462-70.

Wong AH, Umapathi T, Nishimoto Y, Wang YZ, Chan YC, Yuki N. Cytoalbuminologic dissociation in Asian patients with Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2015;20:47-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jns.12104

Vucic S, Cairns KD, Black KR, Chong PS, Cros D. Neurophysiologic findings in early acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Clin Neurophysiol 2004;115:2329-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2004.05.009

Meulstee J, van der Meche F. Electrodiagnostic criteria for polyneuropathy and demyelination: application in 135 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dutch Guillain-Barré Study Group.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;59:482-6.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.59.5.482

Berciano J, Sedano MJ, Pelayo-Negro AL, García A, Orizaola P, Gallardo E, et al. Proximal nerve lesions in early Guillain-Barré syndrome: implications for pathogenesis and disease classification. J Neurol 2017;264:221-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-016-8204-2

Kuwabara S, Sekiguchi Y, Misawa S. Electrophysiology in Fisher syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol 2017;128:215-9.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2016.11.009

Rajabally YA, Durand MC, Mitchell J, Orlikowski D, Nicolas G. Electrophysiological diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome subtype: could a single study suffice? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015;86:115-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2014-307815

Uncini A, Kuwabara S. The electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome subtypes: Where do we stand? Clin Neurophysiol 2018;129:2586-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2018.09.025

Van den Bergh PYK, Piéret F, Woodard JL, Attarian S, Grapperon AM, Nicolas G, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome subtype diagnosis: A prospective multicentric European study. Muscle Nerve 2018;58:23-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26056

Uncini A, Kuwabara S. Electrodiagnostic criteria for Guillain-Barré syndrome: a critical revision and the need for an update. Clin Neurophysiol 2012;123:1487-95.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2012.01.025

Gorson KC, Ropper AH, Muriello MA, Blair R. Prospective evaluation of MRI lumbosacral nerve root enhancement in acute Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 1996;47:813-7.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.47.3.813

Yikilmaz A, Doganay S, Gumus H, Per H, Kumandas S, Coskun A. Magnetic resonance imaging of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome. Childs Nerv Syst 2010;26:1103-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-010-1197-8

Elrick MJ, Gordon-Lipkin E, Crawford TO, Van Haren K, Messacar K, Thornton N, et al. Clinical subpopulations in a sample of North American children diagnosed with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, 2012-2016. JAMA Pediatr 2019;173:134-9.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4890

Hopkins SE, Elrick MJ, Messacar K. Acute Flaccid Myelitis - Keys to diagnosis, questions about treatment, and future directions. JAMA Pediatr 2018;173:117-8.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4896

Maloney JA, Mirsky DM, Messacar K, Dominguez SR, Schreiner T, Stence NV. MRI findings in children with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction occurring during the 2014 enterovirus D68 outbreak. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2015;36:245-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4188

Gallardo E, Sedano MJ, Orizaola P, Sánchez-Juan P, González-Suárez A, García A, et al. Spinal nerve involvement in early Guillain-Barré syndrome: a clinico-electrophysiological, ultrasonographic and pathological study. Clin Neurophysiol 2015;126:810-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2014.06.051

Razali SNO, Arumugam T, Yuki N, Rozalli FI, Goh KJ, Shahrizaila N. Serial peripheral nerve ultrasound in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol 2016;127:1652-6.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2015.06.030

Vereninging Spierziekten Nederland, Nederlandse Vereniging van Revalidatieartsen, [Dutch Association of Muscular Diseases & Dutch Society of Rehabilitation Specialists]. Multidisciplinaire richtlijn Guillain-Barré syndroom [Multidisciplinary guideline Guillain-Barré syndrome]. Vol. 1 103-112, 120-122 (Libertas, Bunnik, 2011).

Mehta S. Neuromuscular disease causing acute respiratory failure. Respir Care 2006;51:1016-21, discussion 1021-3.

Walgaard C, Lingsma HF, Ruts L, Drenthen J, van Koningsveld R, Garssen MJP, et al. Prediction of respiratory insufficiency in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol 2010;67:781-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.21976

Walgaard C, Lingsma HF, van Doorn PA, van der Jagt M, Steyerberg EW, Jacobs BC. Tracheostomy or not: Prediction of prolonged mechanical ventilation in Guillain–Barré Syndrome. Neurocrit Care 2017;26:6-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-016-0311-5

Hughes RA, Swan AV, van Doorn PA. Intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;CD002063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002063.pub6

Chevret S, Hughes RA, Annane D. Plasma exchange for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;2:CD001798. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001798.pub3

Korinthenberg R, Schessl J, Kirschner J, Monting JS. Intravenously administered immunoglobulin in the treatment of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2005;116:8-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-1324

The French Cooperative Group on Plasma Exchange in Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Appropriate number of plasma exchanges in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol 1997;41:298-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410410304

Verboon C, van Doorn PA, Jacobs BC. Treatment dilemmas in Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2017;88:346-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-314862

Raphael JC, Chevret S, Hughes RA, Annane D. Plasma exchange for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;CD001798. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001798.pub2

Hughes RA, Swan AV, Raphaël JC, Annane D, van Koningsveld R, van Doorn PA. Immunotherapy for Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review. Brain 2007;130:2245-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awm004

Van Koningsveld R, Schmitz PIM, Meché FGA, Visser LH, Meulstee J, van Doorn PA, et al. Effect of methylprednisolone when added to standard treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barré syndrome: randomised trial. Lancet 2004;363:192-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(03)15324-x

Islam MB, Islam Z, Rahman S, Endtz HP, Vos MC, van der Jagt M, et al. Small volume plasma exchange for Guillain-Barré syndrome in resource poor settings: a safety and feasibility study. Pilot Feasibility Stud 2017;3:40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-017-0185-0

Overell JR, Hseih ST, Odaka M, Yuki N, Willison HJ. Treatment for Fisher syndrome, Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis and related disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004761.pub2

Verboon C, Doets AY, Galassi G, Davidson A, Waheed W, Péréon Y, et al. Current treatment practice of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 2019;93:e59-76.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007719

Tomimatsu T, Sugihara M, Nagai T, Sunada Y, Kimura T, Shimoya K. Guillain-Barré syndrome after trivalent influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016;201:225-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.03.031

Pacheco LD, Saad AF, Hankins GD, Chiosi G, Saade G. Guillain-Barré Syndrome in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2016;128:1105-0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000001716

Branch DW, Porter TF, Paidas MJ, Belfort MA, Gonik B. Obstetric uses of intravenous immunoglobulin: successes, failures, and promises. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:S133-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mai.2001.117821

El-Bayoumi MA, El-Refaey AM, Abdelkader AM, El-Assmy MMA, Alwakeel AA, El-Tahan HM. Comparison of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange in treatment of mechanically ventilated children with Guillain-Barré syndrome: a randomized study. Crit Care 2011;15:R164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc10305

Michon B, Moghrabi A, Winikoff R, Barrette S, Bernstein ML, Champagne J, et al. Complications of apheresis in children. Transfusion 2007;47:1837-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2007.01405.x

Kannan Kanikannan MA, Durga P, Venigalla NK, Kandadai RM, Jabeen AS, Borgohain R. Simple bedside predictors of mechanical ventilation in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Critical Care 2014;29:219-23.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.10.026

Lawn ND, Fletcher DD, Henderson RD, Wolter TD, Wijdicks EF. Anticipating mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Arch Neurol 2001;58:893-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.58.6.893

Hughes RAC, Newsom-Davis JM, Perkin GD, Pierce JM. Controlled trial of prednisolone in acute polyneuropathy. Lancet 1978;312:750-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(78)92644-2

Dhar R, Stitt L, Hahn AF. The morbidity and outcome of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome admitted to the intensive care unit. J Neurol Sci 2008;264:121-8.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2007.08.005

Oczko-Walker M, Manousakis G, Wang S, Malter JS, Waclawik AJ. Plasma exchange after initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in Guillain-Barré syndrome: critical reassessment of effectiveness and cost-efficiency. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2010;12:55-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CND.0b013e3181f3dbbf

Farcas P, Avnun L, Frisher S, Herishanu YO, Wirguin I. Efficacy of repeated intravenous immunoglobulin in severe unresponsive Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet 1997;350:1747.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(97)24050-x

Walgaard C, Jacobs BC, Lingsma HF, Steyerberg EW, Cornblath DR, van Doorn PA, et al. Second IVIg course in Guillain-Barré syndrome patients with poor prognosis (SID-GBS trial): Protocol for a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2018;23:210-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jns.12286

Van den Berg B, Storm EF, Garssen MJP, Blomkwist-Markens PH, Jacobs BC. Clinical outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome after prolonged mechanical ventilation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2018-317968

Walgaard C, Lingsma HF, Ruts L, van Doorn PA, Steyerberg EW, Jacobs BC. Early recognition of poor prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 2011;76:968-75.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182104407

Soysal A, Aysal F, Caliskan B, Dogan Ak P, Mutluay B, Sakalli N, et al. Clinico-electrophysiological findings and prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome-10 years' experience. Acta Neurol Scand 2011;123:181-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01366.x

Bersano A, Carpo M, Allaria S, Franciotta D, A Citterio, Nobile-Orazio E. Long term disability and social status change after Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Neurol 2006;253:214-8.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-005-0958-x

Forsberg A, Press R, Holmqvist LW. Residual disability 10 years after falling ill in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a prospective follow-up study. J Neurol Sci 2012;317:74-9.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2012.02.026

Hughes RA, Wijdicks EFM, Benson E, Cornblath DR, Hahn AF, Meythaler JM, et al. Supportive care for patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Arch Neurol 2005;62:1194-8.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.62.8.1194

Davidson I, Wilson C, Walton T, Brissenden S. Physiotherapy and Guillain-Barré syndrome: results of a national survey. Physiotherapy 2009;95:157-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2009.04.001

Simatos Arsenault N, Vincent PO, Yu BHS, Bastien R, Sweeney A. Influence of exercise on patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review. Physiother Can 2016;68:367-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/ptc.2015-58

Garssen MP, Van Koningsveld R, Van Doorn PA. Residual fatigue is independent of antecedent events and disease severity in Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Neurol 2006;253:1143-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-006-0163-6

Merkies IS, Schmitz PI, van der Meché FG, Samijn JP, van Doorn PA; Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) group. Fatigue in immune-mediated polyneuropathies. Neurology 1999;53:1648-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.53.8.1648

Garssen MPJ, Bussmann JBJ, Schmitz PIM, Zandbergen A, Welter TG, Merkies ISJ, et al. Physical training and fatigue, fitness, and quality of life in Guillain-Barré syndrome and CIDP. Neurology 2004;63:2393-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000148589.87107.9c

Bernsen RA, de Jager AE, Kuijer W, van der Meche FG, Suurmeijer TP. Psychosocial dysfunction in the first year after Guillain-Barré syndrome. Muscle Nerve 2010;41:533-9.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.21536

Wang Y, Shi Q, Lv H, Hu M, Wang W, Wang Q, et al. IgG-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) prevents disease progression and facilitates improvement in a rabbit model of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Exp Neurol 2017;291:134-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.02.010

Misawa S, Kuwabara S, Sato Y, Yamaguchi N, Nagashima K, Katayama K, et al. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol 2018;17:519-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30114-5

Wakerley BR, Yuki N. Mimics and chameleons in Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Pract Neurol 2015;15:90-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/practneurol-2014-000937

Wakerley BR, Kokubun N, Funakoshi K, Nagashima T, Hirata K, Yuki N. Clinical classification of 103 Japanese patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Neurol Sci 2016;69:43-7.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.08.002

Hiew FL, Ramlan R, Viswanathan S, Puvanarajah S. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, variants & forms fruste: Reclassification with new criteria. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017;158:114-8.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2017.05.006

Blum S, Reddel S, Spies J, McCombe P. Clinical features of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome at seven hospitals on the East Coast of Australia. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2013;18:316-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jns5.12045

Peric S, Milosevic V, Berisavac I, Stojiljkovic O, Beslac-Bumbasirevic L, Marjanovic I, et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Western Balkans. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2014;19:317-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jns.12096

Zhang G, Li Q, Zhang R, Wei X, Wang J, Qin X. Subtypes and Prognosis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Southwest China. PLoS ONE 2015;10:e0133520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133520

Mitsui Y, Kusunoki S, Arimura K, Kaji R, Kanda T, Kuwabara S, et al. A multicentre prospective study of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Japan: a focus on the incidence of subtypes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015;86:110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2013-306509

Ishaque T, Islam MB, Ara G, Endtz HP, Mohammad QD, Jacobs BC, et al. High mortality from Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2017;22:121-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jns.12215

Downloads

Publicado

2021-02-07

Como Citar

Leonhard, S. E., Mandarakas, M. R., Gondim, F. A., Bateman, K., Ferreira, M. L., Cornblath, D. R., van Doorn, P. A., Dourado, M. E., Hughes, R. A., Islam, B., Kusunoki, S., Pardo, C. A., Reisin, R., Sejvar, J. J., Shahrizaila, N., Soares, C., Umapathi, T., Wang, Y., Yiu, E. M., Willison, H. J., & Jacobs, B. C. (2021). Diretrizes Baseadas em Evidências Diagnóstico e manejo da Síndrome de Guillain–Barré em dez etapas. Revista Neurociências, 29, 1–52. https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2021.v29.11725

Edição

Seção

Seção Especial
Recebido em 2021-02-07
Publicado em 2021-02-07